This course will focus on the study of translocation physiology, as an emerging tool to help refining conservation translocation methods. First, student will learn the principles at the basis of morphological changes occurring in some animal apparatus over the course of the adaptation process, such as changes in body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, which may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environment. In details, the adaptations of the neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal systems to environmental changes will be carefully analysed. Students will then learn the physiological and adaptation measures put in place by translocated animals to face the stressful events linked with the capture, handling, transport, and release events. They will also become familiar with the field-based measurements that can be used as indicators of the general health and wellbeing of individual animals or populations, and with the most appropriate measures and methods to be used to assess the adaptation of the released animals in the new environment. The potential use of physiological tools in conservation translocations, their invasiveness and possible impacts will be assessed by case report studies and by critically reviewing the scientific literature available in the field.